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  1. Humanized mice have become an important workhorse model for HIV research. Advances that enabled development of a human immune system in immune deficient mouse strains have aided new basic research in HIV patho...

    Authors: Janice J. Endsley, Matthew B. Huante, Kubra F. Naqvi, Benjamin B. Gelman and Mark A. Endsley

    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:14

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  2. Humanized mice model human disease and as such are used commonly for research studies of infectious, degenerative and cancer disorders. Recent models also reflect hematopoiesis, natural immunity, neurobiology,...

    Authors: Prasanta K. Dash, Santhi Gorantla, Larisa Poluektova, Mahmudul Hasan, Emiko Waight, Chen Zhang, Milica Markovic, Benson Edagwa, Jatin Machhi, Katherine E. Olson, Xinglong Wang, R. Lee Mosley, Bhavesh Kevadiya and Howard E. Gendelman

    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:13

    Content type: Review

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  3. The potential use of the broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (bnAbs) towards prophylaxis and treatment to HIV-1 is currently being explored. While a number of promising bnAbs have been discovered and a ...

    Authors: Ranajoy Mullick, Jyoti Sutar, Nitin Hingankar, Suprit Deshpande, Madhuri Thakar, Seema Sahay, Rajesh P. Ringe, Sampurna Mukhopadhyay, Ajit Patil, Shubhangi Bichare, Kailapuri G. Murugavel, Aylur K. Srikrishnan, Rajat Goyal, Devin Sok and Jayanta Bhattacharya

    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:12

    Content type: Research

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  4. The HIV-1 epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa is heterogeneous with diverse unevenly distributed subtypes and regional differences in prevalence. Subtype-specific differences in disease progression rate and transmi...

    Authors: Omotayo Farinre, Kamini Gounder, Tarylee Reddy, Marcel Tongo, Jonathan Hare, Beth Chaplin, Jill Gilmour, Phyllis Kanki, Jaclyn K. Mann and Thumbi Ndung’u

    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:11

    Content type: Research

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  5. Maturation inhibitors (MIs) potently block HIV-1 maturation by inhibiting the cleavage of the capsid protein and spacer peptide 1 (CA-SP1). Bevirimat (BVM), a highly efficacious first-in-class MI against HIV-1...

    Authors: Dibya Ghimire, Yuvraj KC, Uddhav Timilsina, Kriti Goel, T. J. Nitz, Carl T. Wild and Ritu Gaur

    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:9

    Content type: Research

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  6. To determine if individuals, from HIV-1 serodiscordant couple cohorts from Rwanda and Zambia, who become HIV-positive have a distinct inflammatory biomarker profile compared to individuals who remain HIV-negat...

    Authors: Samantha McInally, Kristin Wall, Tianwei Yu, Rabindra Tirouvanziam, William Kilembe, Jill Gilmour, Susan A. Allen and Eric Hunter

    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:8

    Content type: Research

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  7. The Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus Type-1 (HTLV-1) is a blood-borne pathogen and etiological agent of Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATLL) and HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/T...

    Authors: Daniel O. Pinto, Sarah Al Sharif, Gifty Mensah, Maria Cowen, Pooja Khatkar, James Erickson, Heather Branscome, Thomas Lattanze, Catherine DeMarino, Farhang Alem, Ruben Magni, Weidong Zhou, Sandrine Alais, Hélène Dutartre, Nazira El-Hage, Renaud Mahieux…

    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:6

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  8. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Lloyd Einsiedel, Fabian Chiong, Hubertus Jersmann and Graham P. Taylor

    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:5

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Retrovirology 2021 18:1

  9. So far, the prevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) type 1 and 2 in some highly populated countries such as China is still unknown. In this study, a multi-center nationwide serological survey was desig...

    Authors: Le Chang, Shanhai Ou, Zhengang Shan, Faming Zhu, Huimin Ji, Xia Rong, Fei Guo, Xinyi Jiang, Huizhen Sun, Ying Yan and Lunan Wang

    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:2

    Content type: Research

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  10. The lung is one of several organs that can be affected by HTLV-1 mediated inflammation. Pulmonary inflammation associated with HTLV-1 infection involves the interstitium, airways and alveoli, resulting in seve...

    Authors: Lloyd Einsiedel, Fabian Chiong, Hubertus Jersmann and Graham P. Taylor

    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:1

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Retrovirology 2021 18:5

  11. A reservoir of replication-competent but latent virus is the main obstacle to a cure for HIV-1 infection. Much of this reservoir resides in memory CD4 T cells. We hypothesized that these cells can be reactivat...

    Authors: Thomas Vollbrecht, Aaron O. Angerstein, Bryson Menke, Nikesh M. Kumar, Michelli Faria de Oliveira, Douglas D. Richman and John C. Guatelli

    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:36

    Content type: Research

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  12. HIV associated neurocognitive disorders cause significant morbidity and mortality despite the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy. A deeper understanding of fundamental mechanisms underlying HIV inf...

    Authors: Mohammad A. Rai, Jason Hammonds, Mario Pujato, Christopher Mayhew, Krishna Roskin and Paul Spearman

    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:35

    Content type: Research

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  13. Koalas are infected with the koala retrovirus (KoRV) that exists as exogenous or endogenous viruses. KoRV is genetically diverse with co-infection with up to ten envelope subtypes (A-J) possible; KoRV-A is the...

    Authors: HaoQiang Zheng, Yi Pan, Shaohua Tang, Geoffrey W. Pye, Cynthia K. Stadler, Larry Vogelnest, Kimberly Vinette Herrin, Bruce A. Rideout and William M. Switzer

    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:34

    Content type: Research

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  14. The development of pretreatment drug resistance (PDR) is becoming an obstacle to the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Besides, data from developing settings including Ethiopia is still limited. Therefo...

    Authors: Mulugeta Kiros, Dawit Hailu Alemayehu, Eleni Geberekidan, Adane Mihret, Melanie Maier, Woldaregay Erku Abegaz and Andargachew Mulu

    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:33

    Content type: Research

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  15. As HIV has fueled a global resurgence of tuberculosis over the last several decades, there is a growing awareness that HIV-mediated impairments in both innate and adaptive immunity contribute to the heightened...

    Authors: Sara C. Auld and Bashar S. Staitieh

    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:32

    Content type: Review

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  16. A protein exhibiting more than one biochemical function is termed a moonlighting protein. Glycolytic enzymes are typical moonlighting proteins, and these enzymes control the infection of various viruses. Previ...

    Authors: Naoki Kishimoto, Kengo Yamamoto, Nozomi Iga, Chie Kirihara, Towa Abe, Nobutoki Takamune and Shogo Misumi

    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:31

    Content type: Research

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  17. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infects primarily CD4+ T-lymphocytes and evoques severe diseases, predominantly Adult T-Cell Leukemia/ Lymphoma (ATL/L) and HTLV-1-associated Myelopathy/ Tropical Spast...

    Authors: Sebastian Millen, Lina Meretuk, Tim Göttlicher, Sarah Schmitt, Bernhard Fleckenstein and Andrea K. Thoma-Kress

    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:30

    Content type: Research

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  18. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiological agent of HTLV associated myelopathy/ Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and Adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), in around 2–5% of the i...

    Authors: Paula Benencio, Sindy A. Fraile Gonzalez, Nicolás Ducasa, Kimberly Page, Carolina A. Berini and Mirna M. Biglione

    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:29

    Content type: Research

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  19. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) can mitigate the morbidity and mortality caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Successful development of ART can be accelerated by accurate structural and biochemical d...

    Authors: Grant Eilers, Kushol Gupta, Audrey Allen, Jeffrey Zhou, Young Hwang, Michael B. Cory, Frederic D. Bushman and Gregory Van Duyne

    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:28

    Content type: Research

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  20. Adult T-cell leukemia lymphoma (ATLL) is a chemotherapy-resistant malignancy with a median survival of less than one year that will afflict between one hundred thousand and one million individuals worldwide wh...

    Authors: Daniel A. Rauch, Sydney L. Olson, John C. Harding, Hemalatha Sundaramoorthi, Youngsoo Kim, Tianyuan Zhou, A. Robert MacLeod, Grant Challen and Lee Ratner

    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:27

    Content type: Research

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  21. The reliable diagnosis of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is important, particularly as it can be vertically transmitted by breast feeding mothers to their infants. However, current diagn...

    Authors: Kazu Okuma, Madoka Kuramitsu, Toshihiro Niwa, Tomokuni Taniguchi, Yumiko Masaki, Gohzoh Ueda, Chieko Matsumoto, Rieko Sobata, Yasuko Sagara, Hitomi Nakamura, Masahiro Satake, Kiyonori Miura, Naoki Fuchi, Hideaki Masuzaki, Akihiko Okayama, Kazumi Umeki…

    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:26

    Content type: Research

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  22. Alternative splicing is a key step in Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication that is tightly regulated both temporally and spatially. More than 50 different transcripts can be generated from a...

    Authors: Nam Nguyen Quang, Sophie Goudey, Emmanuel Ségéral, Ammara Mohammad, Sophie Lemoine, Corinne Blugeon, Margaux Versapuech, Jean-Christophe Paillart, Clarisse Berlioz-Torrent, Stéphane Emiliani and Sarah Gallois-Montbrun

    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:25

    Content type: Research

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  23. HIV-1 infects a wide range of CD4+ T cells with different phenotypic properties and differing expression levels of entry coreceptors. We sought to determine the viral tropism of subtype C (C-HIV) Envelope (Env) c...

    Authors: Matthew J. Gartner, Paul R. Gorry, Carolin Tumpach, Jingling Zhou, Ashanti Dantanarayana, J. Judy Chang, Thomas A. Angelovich, Paula Ellenberg, Annemarie E. Laumaea, Molati Nonyane, Penny L. Moore, Sharon R. Lewin, Melissa J. Churchill, Jacqueline K. Flynn and Michael Roche

    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:24

    Content type: Research

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  24. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Belete Ayele Desimmie, Caroline Weydert, Rik Schrijvers, Sofie Vets, Jonas Demeulemeester, Paul Proost, Igor Paron, Jan De Rijck, Jan Mast, Norbert Bannert, Rik Gijsbers, Frauke Christ and Zeger Debyser

    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:23

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Retrovirology 2015 12:16

  25. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Belete Ayele Desimmie, Rik Schrijvers, Jonas Demeulemeester, Doortje Borrenberghs, Caroline Weydert, Wannes Thys, Sofie Vets, Barbara Van Remoortel, Johan Hofkens, Jan De Rijck, Jelle Hendrix, Norbert Bannert, Rik Gijsbers, Frauke Christ and Zeger Debyser

    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:22

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Retrovirology 2013 10:57

  26. HIV-1 promotes the formation of tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) that connect distant cells, aiding cell-to-cell viral transmission between macrophages. Our recent study suggests that the cellular protein M-Sec play...

    Authors: Sameh Lotfi, Hesham Nasser, Osamu Noyori, Masateru Hiyoshi, Hiroaki Takeuchi, Yoshio Koyanagi and Shinya Suzu

    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:20

    Content type: Research

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  27. Tripartite Motif Containing 5 alpha (TRIM5α), a restriction factor produced ubiquitously in cells and tissues of the body plays an important role in the immune response against HIV. TRIM5α targets the HIV caps...

    Authors: Sharon Bright Amanya, Brian Nyiro, Francis Waswa, Bonniface Obura, Rebecca Nakaziba, Eva Nabulime, Ashaba Fred Katabazi, Rose Nabatanzi, Alice Bayiyana, Gerald Mboowa, Alex Kayongo, Misaki Wayengera and Obondo J. Sande

    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:19

    Content type: Research

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  28. Some multifunctional cellular proteins, as the monocyte chemotactic protein-induced protein 1 (ZC3H12A/MCPIP1) and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor CDKN1A/p21, are able to modulate the cellular susceptibi...

    Authors: Suwellen S. D. de Azevedo, Marcelo Ribeiro-Alves, Fernanda H. Côrtes, Edson Delatorre, Lucia Spangenberg, Hugo Naya, Leonardo N. Seito, Brenda Hoagland, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Valdilea G. Veloso, Mariza G. Morgado, Thiago Moreno L. Souza and Gonzalo Bello

    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:18

    Content type: Research

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  29. Heterosexual transmission remains the main route of HIV-1 transmission and female genital tract (FGT) inflammation increases the risk of infection. However, the mechanism(s) by which inflammation facilitates i...

    Authors: Evelyn Ngwa Lumngwena, Simon Metenou, Lindi Masson, Claudia Cicala, James Arthos and Zenda Woodman

    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:17

    Content type: Research

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  30. The human myxovirus resistance 2 (Mx2/MxB) protein was originally found to regulate cytoplasmic-nuclear transport but was recently reported to restrict HIV-1 replication by binding to HIV-1 capsid (CA), preven...

    Authors: Linlin Xie, Lang Chen, Chaojie Zhong, Ting Yu, Zhao Ju, Meirong Wang, Hairong Xiong, Yan Zeng, Jianhua Wang, Haitao Hu, Wei Hou and Yong Feng

    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:16

    Content type: Research

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  31. Simian T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (STLV-1) is disseminated among various non-human primate species and is closely related to human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), the causative agent of adult T-cell l...

    Authors: Megumi Murata, Jun-ichirou Yasunaga, Ayaka Washizaki, Yohei Seki, Madoka Kuramitsu, Wei Keat Tan, Anna Hu, Kazu Okuma, Isao Hamaguchi, Takuo Mizukami, Masao Matsuoka and Hirofumi Akari

    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:15

    Content type: Research

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  32. Patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are more prone to systemic inflammation and pathological clotting, and many may develop deep vein thrombosis (DVT) as a result of this dysregulated...

    Authors: Brandon S. Jackson, Julien Nunes Goncalves and Etheresia Pretorius

    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:14

    Content type: Research

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  33. HIV-1 can develop resistance to antiretroviral drugs, mainly through mutations within the target regions of the drugs. In HIV-1 protease, a majority of resistance-associated mutations that develop in response ...

    Authors: Tomas Bastys, Vytautas Gapsys, Hauke Walter, Eva Heger, Nadezhda T. Doncheva, Rolf Kaiser, Bert L. de Groot and Olga V. Kalinina

    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:13

    Content type: Research

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  34. Human T cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) was the first retrovirus found to cause cancer in humans, but the mechanisms that drive the development of leukemia and other diseases associated with HTLV-1 infecti...

    Authors: Maria Omsland, Micol Silic-Benussi, Ramona Moles, Sarkis Sarkis, Damian F. J. Purcell, David Yurick, Georges Khoury, Donna M. D’Agostino, Vincenzo Ciminale and Genoveffa Franchini

    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:11

    Content type: Review

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  35. Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), suspected to be transposition-defective, may reshape the transcriptional network of the human genome by regulatory elements distributed in their long terminal repeats (LT...

    Authors: Bei Xue, Tiansheng Zeng, Lisha Jia, Dongsheng Yang, Stanley L. Lin, Leonardo A. Sechi and David J. Kelvin

    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:10

    Content type: Research

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  36. The development of safe and effective combination antiretroviral therapies for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection over the past several decades has significantly reduced HIV-associated morbidity and ...

    Authors: Yash Agarwal, Cole Beatty, Shivkumar Biradar, Isabella Castronova, Sara Ho, Kevin Melody and Moses Turkle Bility

    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:8

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  37. HIV-1 does not encode a helicase and hijacks those of the cell for efficient replication. We and others previously showed that the DEAD box helicase, DDX5, is an essential HIV dependency factor. DDX5 was recen...

    Authors: Nyaradzai Sithole, Claire A. Williams, Truus E. M. Abbink and Andrew M. L. Lever

    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:6

    Content type: Research

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  38. Adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) is an aggressive mature lymphoid proliferation associated with poor prognosis. Standard of care includes chemotherapy and/or the combination of zidovudine and interferon-al...

    Authors: Ambroise Marçais, Lucy Cook, Aviva Witkover, Vahid Asnafi, Véronique Avettand-Fenoel, Richard Delarue, Morgane Cheminant, David Sibon, Laurent Frenzel, Hugues de Thé, Charles R. M. Bangham, Ali Bazarbachi, Olivier Hermine and Felipe Suarez

    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:5

    Content type: Short report

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  39. HTLV-1 was the first described human retrovirus and was soon found to be associated with severe clinical diseases, including a devastating lymphoma/leukemia and other inflammatory diseases. Although HTLV-2 is ...

    Authors: Ricardo Ishak, Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães Ishak and Antonio Carlos R. Vallinoto

    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:4

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  40. The HIV accessory protein Nef downregulates the viral entry receptor CD4, the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-A and -B molecules, the Serine incorporator 5 (SERINC5) protein and other molecules from the infected...

    Authors: Hanwei Sudderuddin, Natalie N. Kinloch, Steven W. Jin, Rachel L. Miller, Bradley R. Jones, Chanson J. Brumme, Jeffrey B. Joy, Mark A. Brockman and Zabrina L. Brumme

    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:3

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  41. Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) causes adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) and inflammatory diseases. The HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ) gene is constantly expressed in HTLV-1 infected cells and ATL cel...

    Authors: Masao Matsuoka and Jean-Michel Mesnard

    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:2

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

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