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Table 1 Non antigen-specific immune therapy

From: Can immunotherapy be useful as a “functional cure” for infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1?

Name Trial Species Baseline patients characteristics Type of immune therapy Route and frequency of administration Number of patients Outcome References
Phase I dose escalation trial Human HAART IL-12 sc, single dose 47 Dose related increase in serum IFN-γ levels, NK and CD8 T cell numbers. [35]
Phase I randomized placebo controlled Human HAART IL-12 sc, multi dose twice weekly for 4 weeks. 56 Well tolerated at doses up to 100 ng/kg. Dose related increase in neopterin levels. No differences in other immunological parameters or viral load [36]
Three randomized trials Human Mono- or dual treated IL-2 iv intermittent 5 days regimen 155 Higher CD4 T cell count, lower VL and 43% reduction in risk of disease progression or death. [37]
SILCAAT Human HAART Low CD4 T cell count IL-2 sc 6 cycles of IL-2 twice daily for 5 consecutive days 1695 Sustained effect on CD4 T cells without affecting clinical progression [38]
ESPRIT Human HAART High CD4 T cell count IL-2 sc 3 cycles of IL-2 twice daily for 5 consecutive days 4111 Temporary effect on CD4 T cells without affecting clinical progression. [38]
ANRS 119 randomized clinical trial Human Therapy naïve IL-2 sc 3 cycles of IL2 for 5 consecutive days 130 Sustained increase in CD4 T cells without affecting viral load. [39]
ANRS-NIH ILIADE Human HAART with high CD4 IL-2 sc 3 cycles of IL2 for 5 consecutive days. ATI on week 24 148 Delay HAART resumption following treatment interruption. No effect on viral load. [40]
Random placebo controlled trial Human Therapy naïve IL-7 sc, single injection 25 Increased numbers of circulating CD4 and CD8 T cells. Transient increase in VL. [41]
EudraCT (open label phase I/IIa) Human HAART IL-7 sc repeated injections. Eight doses 3 times a week 13 Expansion of naïve CD4 and CD8 T cells. [42]
  Rhesus macaque Chronic SIV IL-7 sc 4 injections every 3 weeks 9 Counteracts IFN-α induced lymphopenia. Increasing circulating CD4 T cells. [43]
  Indian rhesus macaque Chronic SIV + HAART IL-15 sc twice a week from day 0-day42 16 Delayed viral suppression. Failed to enhance antigen-specific CD4 T cell reconstitution at mucosal and lymphoid sites. Upon ATI loss of CD4 T cells more rapidly. [44]
  Indian rhesus macaque Chronic SIV IL-21 2 iv injections 7 days apart and 3 sc doses 23 days after 2nd vaccination. 7 Safe and well tolerated. Increased cytotoxic potential of T cells, increased SIV antibody production. [45]
  Indian rhesus macaque Chronic SIV Blocking Ab to PD-1 Iv 14 Expansion virus specific CD8 T cells and B cell activation. Reduction in plasma VL and prolonged survival. [46]
  Rhesus macaque Chronic SIV + HAART Blocking Ab to CTLA4 iv 16 Increase CD4 and CD8 T cell responses and drop of viral RNA. [47]
  Indian rhesus macaque Chronic SIV + HAART Blocking Ab to CTLA4 iv 10 No expansion SIV specific T-cells. Increased activation of T cells and increased viral replication at mucosal sites. [48]
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